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【英语畅谈世界文化】019 Confucius 孔子  

2016-10-18 15:03:31|  分类: 【英语】听力 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 Lesson19:   Confucius   孔子(中国)

原文:

FS: Foreign student    S: Student

 

S: Hi Zhang Ping. What are you reading?

FS: It's about Confucius and his rules for life.

S: Rules for life, like in a religion?

FS: Exactly !Confucianism is one of " The Three Ways" , along with  Buddhism and Taoism.

S: Oh, I see. When did he live?

FS: He lived from 551-479 BC.  His life defines the end of The Spring and Autumn Period in Chinese history. It wasn't until many years after he died that he became the dominant Chinese philosopher of morality and politics.

S: So, when did he become famous?

FS: In the Warring States Period from 390-305 BC, they extended and systematised his teachings, but they didn't become what we know today until the Han dynasty.

S: So, it was years and years after his death? I guess it's a little like Jesus, whose teachings became the official religion of the Roman Empire 300 years later.

FS: But Confucianism is all based on a terminology of morality.

S: What do you mean by that?

FS: OK for example, he believed in benevolence, charity, humanity and love. Or overall,  kindness, which is called " Ren".

S: Be kind to each other, that makes sense.

FS: Yes, and right conduct, morality and duty co one's neighbour. It's called righteousness, or "Yi".

SYesthe Bible says we should love our neighbours, so that's a little similar.

FSMost religions have things in common. Also, profit, gain and advantage, which are not proper motives for actions affecting others.  It's called " Li" , and it's why Confucius thought that commerce and industry were bad ideas.

SI see. So are these the 3 main things?

FSYes. "Ren" is in the "Being" category. "Yi" the "Doing or Means" category and " Li"  is part of the " Ends"  category.

SSounds complicated !

FSA simple way to remember is this . to love others; to honour one's parents; to do what is right instead of what is of advantage; to practice "reciprocity, "  or " don't do to others what you would not want yourself"; to rule by moral example, called "De" instead of by force and violence.

S: OK, so be a nice, kind person, love each other and don't fight.

FS: Yes, that's right.



译文:

FS:外国学生    S:学生

 

S:  张萍,你好!你在看什么书?

FS : 关于孔子及其人生准则的书。

S: 人生准则,像宗教书吗?

FS : 一点不错!儒教是“三教”之一,其他两个是佛教和道教。

S: 哦,我明白了。他生活在什么年代?

FS: 孔子生活在公元前551年至前479年,正是中国历史上的春秋末期。他去世很多年以后,才被认为是中国最有影响的道德家和政治哲学家。

S: 那他是什么时候出名的?

FS:在公元前390年至前305年的战国时期,人们将他的学说扩充并进行系统整理,不过我们今天所了解的孔子学说是汉朝才成形的。

S: 那是他去世很多年以后的事了吧?我觉得他与耶稣有点像,耶稣的教义在他去世300年以后才成为罗马帝国的国教。

FS:可是儒教是以整套的道德规范为根本的。

S: 这是什么意思?

FS: 是这样……比如。他信奉善心、慈爱、人性和友爱。或者说,最重要的是仁爱,叫做“仁”。

S:互相友爱,这有道理。

FS:是的。对自己的邻居要行为端正、讲道德、负责任。这就是道义,或“义”。

S: 是的,《圣经》也说我们要爱自己的邻居,所以这一点有点类似。

FS:大多数宗教都有共通之处。此外,利润、收益和好处不能作为你妨碍别人的行为的正当动机,这叫“礼”,这也是为什么孔子认为工商业不好的原因。

S:我明白了。这就是他的3个主要观点吗?

FS:是的,“仁”是“本体”范畴,“义”是“行动或方式”范畴,而“礼”是“目的”范畴。

S:听起来太复杂了!

FS:有个简单的办法去记这些观点,就是爱他人;尊敬自己的父母;去做你认为正确的事而不是对自己有利的事;实行“互惠”,即“己所不欲,勿施于人”;以“德”服人,而不是靠武力和暴力压人。

S:好了,所以一定要做个和蔼、善良的人,要互相友爱,不要争斗。

FS:是的,就是这样。

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