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【听力教程】高级英语听力 lesson 20  

2016-05-28 20:39:24|  分类: 【英语】听力 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 Lesson Twenty

  Section One: News in Brief

  Tapescript

  1. The Pentagon today called on the highly publicized withdrawal1 of

  Soviet2 troops from Afghanistan a sham3.  Moscow announced earlier

  this month that it would completethe withdrawal of 6,000 men from

  Afghanistan by the end of October.,NPR's Allen Burlow has the sto-

  ry. "The head of the Defense4 Intelligence Agency, Lieutenant5 Gener-

  al Leonard Perutz said the Pentagon has developed clear and con-

  vincing evidence that the Soviet troop withdrawals6 are'a deception7.

  Perutz said the Soviets8 deliberately9 inserted additional tank And rifle

  regiments10 into Afghanistan for no reason other than to withdraw

  them.  'What the Soviets have done is to remove some unneeded

  units and to substitute others, so that the number of military useful

  troops in Afghanistan is basically unchanged.' Perutz said half of

  the Soviet units withdrawn11 were for air defense.  Since the Afghani

  Mujahidin rebels have no air force, Perutz said, the Soviet with-

  drawals have no military significance.  Perutz said the withdrawals

  were designed to enhance General Secretary Gorbachev's image at

  home and abroad.  He said about 116,000 Soviet troops remain in

  Afghanistan.  I'm Allen Burlow in Wahington.'

  2. South African's black miners have observed a one-day str      ike to

  mourn the death of one hundred and seventy-seven of their

  co-workers killed in a fire at the Kinross gold mine last month.

  Workers in other industries also participated in the symbolic12 action.

  Nigel Rench reports from Johannesburg.  'More than a quarter of a

  million black miners were on strike to protest their colleagues'

  deaths, about half the country's total of 600,000 gold and coal min-

 ers, costing the mining industry an estimated $ 4,000,000.          he

 stay-away was total at the Kinross gold mine where last month's

 disaster occurred.  Black miners stayed inside their barrack-like hos-

 tels.  Reporters were barred from the mine.  In central Johannesburg,

 a protest meeting was held by the Black National Union of

 Mineworkers which called the strike action.  A union, spokesman said

 miners had gathered not to mourn, but to commit themselves to lib-

 eration from apartheid and economic exploitation.  White church

 leader, Bayers Nordea, told the crowd, 'The accident at Kinross

 need never have occurred, and the one hundred and'seventy-seven

 men need not have died.' For National Public,Radio, this is Nigel

 Rench in Johannesbiqrg."

3. The King f Saudi Arabia has removed Sheik Ahmed Zaki

 Yamani as Saudi Arabia's Oil Minister.  Yamani had held the job for

 twenty-four years.  Although it's been rumored13 for a few years that

 Yamani was out of favor with the King, his firing shocked the oil

 market., Yamani's replacement14, Hicham Niza, is Saudi Arabia's

 Planning Minister.  NPR's Barbara Mantell has details.  "Oil traders

 here in New York on the mercantile exchange said they had no idea

 that Yamani was about to be fired, but they took it as a sign that

 world oil prices would start to rise.  Yamani had been leading OPEC

 in a price war over the past ten months.  Saudi Arabia, the largest

 producer in the cartel, had raised its production and created an oil

 glut.  That lowered the -price of oil by 50% . Analysts15 say Saudi

 Arabia's King Fahd's supposedly had enough of the price war and of

 Yamani.  King Fahd has said that he would like to see the price of oil

 rise to about $ 18 a barrel.  And at noon today, New York time,

 when Saudi Arabia's new Oil Minister called for a

 OPEC meeting, traders at the mercantile exchange frai

 oil prices.  They were betting that King Fahd

 were going to try to set a new policy of higher          motion. I'm

 Barbara Mantell in New York.
Section Two: News in Detail

                Yamani, is generally, regarded as the

 mastermind           b oil strategy of the 1.970s. The man who

 introduced the word "petrodollars' into our vocabulary, and who

 helped bring about one of the most dramatic shifts of international

 economic and, political power in this century.  NPR's Elizabeth

 Coulton has.         

       Yamani                    the post of Saudi Minister of Petrol-

 eum and Mij                 s in 1962, and it was then he began lead-

 ing the carri               st control of Arab oil resources from

 foreign-owned companies.  He was only thirty-two years old when

 he took over his country's oil ministry16.  But he was then among the

 few Saudis to have had higher western education, including, in his

 case, legal training at Harvard, Although Yamani was only a corn-

 moner in the Kingdom, some members of      had begun

 to recognize the contribution such a  ,         he to the

 Saudi government.  Then crown prince Faisal, later the King, cham-

 pioned young Yamani and gave him a clear mandate17 to do whatever

 ;necessary to keep his country's oil benefits home in Saudi Arabia.  A

 natural diplomat18, Yamani quickly became the unproclaimed leader

 of the Organization of Arab Petroleum19 Exporting Countries as well

 as the global cartel, OPEC.  In November and December of 1973,

 Sheik Yamani toured western capitals to explain OPEC's radical20 pol-

 icies, including why oil prices were going to go up by 70%.

     His announcement shocked the world and his name became an

 international household word.  In London, one journalist wrote at

 the time that Sheik Yamani of Saudi Arabia was the most formida-

 ble eastern emissary to arrive in Europe since the Tartars swept into

 Russia or the Muslim hordes21 reached the walls of Vienna in the

 Middle Ages.  In 1975, Yamani was the target when terrorists seized

  OPEC headquarters in Vienna and took the ministers hostage for

  several days.  Ever since then, Yamani surrounded himself with

  tough British bodyguards22, and he kept his movements secret.  When-

  ever he was seen abroad, he appeared as a superstar with his

          

       At hom@, Tn the roy@a kingdom, however        ,his position was

  somewhat different.  He remained a commoner and, consequently,

  always an outsider, useful to the monarchy23 only as a technocrat24 who

  could manage Saudi wealth for the true owners, the royal family.

  Sometimes, at OPEC meetings, he would have to fly back home to

  consult with the King before proceeding25 with negotiations26.  At such

  ,times, ministers from revolutionary member states, like Iran, would

  criticize Yamani for being only a lackey27 with no power to make ecl-

  sions on his own.  At the same time, many observers believe that

  Yamani's ouster yesterday was caused- by King Fahd's irritation28 with

  Yamani's power base outside the kingdom.  OPEC specialist, Yousef

  Ibrahim of the Wall Street Journal, says Yamani got caught between

  demands.

     I Yamani is also said to be an extremely sensitive ahd religious

  man.  He has been concerned that peoples of the world should try to

  understand each other.  For example, in a conversation once with this

  reporter, Sheik Yamani said he believed all world leaders, like him-

  self, should have at least an introductory course in social anthropol-

  ogy in order to be tolerant of other cultures.  The cosmopolitan29 Sheik

  Yamani will be remembered as not only a wizard of oil economics,

  but perhaps more as a leading diplomat who brought the Arab world

  into th@or again, and changed the course of late twentieth century

  history.      lizabeth Coulton in Washington.

 Section Three: Special Report

 Tapescript

     This week in the United States, the Senate voted to reject the $

 200,000,000 in additional aid to the Philippines.  That money was

 approved by the House after President Corazon Aquino delivered an

 emotional address to a joint30 session of Congress during her visit a

 few weeks ago.  In that speech, Aquino thanked those law-makers

 who, she said, had balanced US strategic interests against human

 concerns and turned US policy against Ferdinand Marcos.

     However, the conflict between strategic US defense interests and

 the everyday human needs of Filipinos remains31 at the heart of

 US-Philippine relations.  It was a major issue in the Senate debate

 over increased economic aid when concerns were raised about the

 Philippines' commitment to retaining two major US military bases.

 Nowhere is this conflict more tangible32 but in Philippine base towns

 themselves.  NPR's Allen Burlow has a report:

     The frightening roar and fearful symmetry of an F-4 Phantom33

   Fighter plane racing34 down the runway of Subic Bay Naval35 Statio

   are quickly lost in wonder as the 23-ton Phantom arches graceful36

   into the blue morning sky and disappears among the clouds, of t

   South China Sea.  The exact nature of today's mission is unknow

   Perhaps it is a routine exercise, or training hours for a young pilot o

   one of the more than 200 daily flights from Subic Bay.  It is imposs

   ble to say what thoughts occupy this pilot's mind, whether they pe

   tain to the endless briefings on the strategic importance of Subic Ba

   to the threat of communism, to the issues of nuclear war, or to t

   theoretical battles of superpower strategists who have him racin

   through the heavens away from the city of Olongapo.

       Olongapo, located about 50 miles northwest of Manila, is th

   city just outside the Subic Bay Naval Station.  Olongapo is where th

   Filipinos live and where the Americans come to play.  In a wa

   Olongapo is a microcosm of the tensions in US-Philippine relation

   Before the Subic Bay installation was built, Olongapo was little mor

   than a fishing village.  Today, the local economy benefits from tens 6

   millions of dollars spent there annually37.  At the same time, the ex

   traordinary and pervasive38 influence of Subic Bay on the econom

   and culture of Olongapo and the Philippines as a whole has led man

   Filipinos to question whether the base should be allowed to stay.

    @ On any given day, there are 10,000 Americans at Subic Bay

   They deal with the big issues like nuclear war and communism.  Bu

   Philippine President Corazon Aquino must deal with more mundan

   matters, like the economic crisis her country faces in places lik

   Olongapo and places like Pergasa.

      Pergasa is the barrel where the city of Olongapo dumps its gar-

   bage.  It is also home for the city's most destitute39.  While Pergasa is

   separated from the Subic Bay Naval Station by only a few yards, a

   moat of raw sewage, and a fence of barbed wire, the concerns of its

   residents could not be more distant.

      Verhilio Fransi has lived here almost 10 years.  He, his wife, and

 8 children, occupy a one-room scrapwood shack40.  They live off the

 dump, collecting bottles and plastic cartons.

      'In one day, we get almost forty-five, fifty pesos, in one day.'

      "And who does the work, you or all your children?'

      "All of us.'

      "All of you together.  You make forty-five pesos.'

      "In one day.'

      'And do you also find food here or not?'

      'We got.;. we found food, but it's canned foods.'

      'Can you eat that food?'

      'Sometimes, but when it tastes no good, we throw it.'

      Fransi says some days his children go hungry.  The earnings41 he

 mentioned for his family of ten come to about $ 2 a day.  In the local

 dialect, Pergasa means hope.  Lastvear, Verhilio Fransi found a solid

 gold bracelet42 in the dump.  He sold it for about $ 10.

      In Pergasa, you breathe the unmistakable acrid43 smoke of

 smouldering garbage coughed up by fires that never go out.  In

 Pergasa, there are thick clouds of flies, millions of flies humming

 their monotonous44 song of decay as they swarm45 about the mountains

 of garbage rising ten, fifteen, thirty feet into the air.

      Catolino Trancy, his wife and nine children live off the dump.

 Near the entrance to their mud-floor shack, there is a pan'with eight

 pigs and an oil drum filled above its rim46 with blood-stained bones.  I

 asked Mr Trancy why he collected these.

      'There is a ... that skulls47 and bones.'

      'And how much money do you get for skulls and bones?

      'About seventy-five centavos a kilo.

      There is a dumpster in front of Trancy's house that says 'Do-

 nated to Olongapo city by the US navy'@ Another sign bears one of

 the slogans of a former mayor.  It reads, 'It's forbidden to be lazy in

 this city.'

      Some two hundred families live here in Pergasa.  Chickens and

  dogs and rats can be seen running about.  A little girl walks through

  the flattened48 cans and the bottle caps, dragging a plastic bag on a str-

  ing or a sort of kite.  She falls into the broken glass and ashes and

  doesn't cry.

       In the Pergasa, the houses are of wood, tin and cardboard boxes

  that say things like 'This side up' or "Fragile'.  There's a house with

  a faded green 'Merry Christmas' sign, another that says "God bless

  you".  There is irony49 here for journalists, but there is no electricity or

  basic services.

       The US navy is in Olongapo because it is one of the @t naturally

  protected harbors in the world.  It is there because the Pentagon

  thinks Subic Bay is essential to protecting US security interests in

  Asia, the Pacific and the Indian Ocean.  But whether the US will be

  allowed to remain in Olongapo will eventually be decided50 by

  Filipinos.  In a national referendum promised by President Aquino,

  they will be asking what kind of friend the US had been, if the bases

  serve Philippines' security interests as well as very real human needs

  of their country, if the income from the base offsets51 the damage done

  to the structure of Philippine society and to Philippine sovereignty.

  As this debate heats up, the United States faces a difficult task in

  convincing people that its concerns extend beyond global issues of

  security down to the very real everyday problems faced by ordinary

  Filipinos.  I'm Allen Burlow reporting.



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